Articles

article of carolyn cartier — 2008b

Pollock, Griselda. “Preface.” In Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts: Feminist Readings, ed. Griselda Pollock, xii-xx. London: Routledge, 1996.

Griselda Pollock. “Generations and Geographies.” In Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts: Feminist Readings, ed. Griselda Pollock, 3-21. (London: Routledge, 1996).

Pollock, Griselda. “From Leeds.” In If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, eds. Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock, unpaginated. Hong Kong: 1a space, 2005.

Robinson, Hilary. Reading Art, Reading Irigaray: The Politics of Art by Women. London: I.B. Taurus, 2006.

Shih, Shu-mei. Visuality and Identity: Sinophone Articulations across the Pacific. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

Tang, Ying Chi. There is a Gleam of Light in the Mountain Far Away: Tang Ying Chi. Hong Kong: Mackie Study, 2004.

Tsang Tak-ping, ed. and curator. Ma’am’s Box – A Metaphor of the Feeling of Love. Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2000.

Turner, Matthew “Fugitive Pieces.” in [Re-]Fabrication: Choi-Yan-chi’s 30 Years, Paths of Inter-disciplinarity in Art, ed. and curator Linda C.H. Lai, 52-65. Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2006.

Mathias Woo Xianggang fengge (Hong Kong Style). Hong Kong: TOM [Cup Magazine], 2005.

Woo, Mathias. Xianggang fengge 2: xiaomie xianggang (Hong Kong Style 2: Destroy Hong Kong). Hong Kong: Zuni Icosahedron, 2006.

Wu Hung. “Introduction: A Decade of Chinese Experimental Art (1990-2000).” In Reinterpretation: A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art: 1990-2002, ed. Wu Hung with Wang Huangsheng and Feng Boyi, 10-19. Guangzhou: Guangzhou Museum of Art, 2002.

Yin Shuzngxi, “The Periphery and Cultural Concerns: Making and Exhibiting Installation and Experimental Sculpture in the 1990s.” In Reinterpretation: A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art: 1990-2002, ed. Wu Hung with Wang Huangsheng and Feng Boyi, 67-74. Guangzhou: Guangzhou Museum of Art, 2002.

Yip, Paul S.F., Joseph Lee and C.K. Law. Hong Kong’s Challenges: Impact of Population Changes. Hong Kong: Civic Exchange, 2005.

Zhu Qi, “Women and Feminine Art in the Dualistic Society.” In Women in a Society of Dual Sexuality: The Exhibition of Contemporary Chinese Female Artists, ed. Zhu Qi, 8-11. Bangkok and Beijing: Tang Contemporary Art, 2006.

iIvy Ma, “From the curator” in If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, complied by Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock (Hong Kong: 1a space), unpaginated.

iiSee Tsang Tak-ping, ed. and curator, Ma’am’s Box – A Metaphor of the Feeling of Love (Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2000); May Fung, May Fung—Everything Starts from “HERE” (Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2002); and Leung Po-shan Anthony, ed. and curator Man Made – A Project about Masculinity and Art(Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2004).

iiiPhoebe Man, “In response to the comments of ‘Wo…man—Feminine Art Exhibition’,” PS Visual Arts and Culture Magazine, no. 17 (Summer 2002), 9.

ivThe idea of the idea of ‘woman art’ or ‘women’s art’ (nüxing yishu) gained momentum in Mainland China art circles in the mid-1990s as a consequence of greater activity by women artists, return of ideas about femininity in China under reform, and in response to challenges from Western feminist art. The ‘woman art’ position recognizes feminine rather than feminist characteristics of art produced by women and thus is not a project aimed at problems of gendered essentialisms. In the words of one curator, “It mainly describes the changing images of gender characteristics of woman in the changing dualistic society, and also women’s participation in the cut-throat competition and their self adjustment.” See Zhu Qi, “Women and Feminine Art in the Dualistic Society,” in Women in a Society of Dual Sexuality: The Exhibition of Contemporary Chinese Female Artists, ed. Zhu Qi (Bangkok and Beijing: Tang Contemporary Art, 2006), 8; and Liao Wen, “‘Women’s Art’ as Part of Contemporary Chinese Art since 1990,” in Reinterpretation: A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art: 1990-2002, ed.

Wu Hung with Wang Huangsheng and Feng Boyi (Guangzhou: Guangzhou Museum of Art, 2002), 60-66. From Griselda Pollock’s non essentialist feminist art theory, women’s art cannot be “a unitary ideological category…. To treat work by women merely as exemplars of womanness is to reproduce a tautology which teaches us nothing about what being, doing like, thinking as a woman might be.” See Pollock, Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and the Histories of Art (Loundon: Routledge, 1988), 30.

vBinghui Huangfu, ed., Text and Subtext: Contemporary Art and Asian Women, (Singapore: Earl Lu Gallery and LASALLE-SIA College of the Arts, 2000); and Text and Subtext: International Contemporary Asian Women Artists Exhibition, (Singapore: Earl Lu Gallery and LASALLE-SIA College of the Arts, 2000).

viLeung Mee-ping, “Memorize the future,” in Text and Subtext, 54.

viiPhoebe Man in Joan Kee, “What is feminist about contemporary Asian women’s art?,” in Global Feminisms: New Directions in Contemporary Art, eds. Maura Reilly and Linda Nochlin, (London and New York: Merrell Publishers, 2007), 110.

viiiAnia Loomba, Colonialism/Postcolonialism (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 47.

ixChang Tsong-zung, “The Secret Artist: Is Hong Kong Art the True Underground,” in Private Content: Public View, complied by Eric Otto Wear and Lisa Cheung (Hong Kong: Hong Kong Fringe Festival), 84.

xConsiderable debate characterizes the idea of the avant-garde in the PRC. See for example Wu Hung, “Introduction: a decade of Chinese experimental art (1990-2000),” in Reinterpretation: A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art: 1990-2002, ed. Wu Hung with Wang Huangsheng and Feng Boyi (Guangzhou: Guangzhou Museum of Art, 2002), 10-19.

xiShu-mei Shih, Visuality and Identity: Sinophone Articulations across the Pacific, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007).

xiiThe art historical treatment of contemporary art is David Clarke Hong Kong Art: Culture and Decolonization (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2001). A focused assessment on selected art media from theoretical perspectives of local identity and urban space in the postcolonial city is Alice Ming Wai Jim,

“Urban Mediations in Hong Kong Contemporary Art: Notes on A Very Good City and Local Orientation,” Positions 12, no. 3 (Winter 2004): 733-58. Jaspar K.W. Lau’s art criticism most dependably advances concerns with local/national/global perspectives on Hong Kong art in relation the PRC and international art criticism; see for example “Identity (f)or difference,” in Local Accent – 12 Artists from Hong Kong, (Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space), 6-35; and “No ‘local’ is an Island,” Yishu 6, no. 5 (June 2006): 85-92.

xiiiThe singular treatment of distinctive women artists in Hong Kong is Eva Kitwah Man Zizhu de zuqun: shi wei Xianggang xinyidai nüxing shijue yishu gongzuozhe(The Tribe of Autonomy: 10 Women Visual Artists in Hong Kong), (Hong Kong: Chunghwa Books, 2000). Writing by Leung Po Shan Anthony, for example, “In anticipation of men’s art: re-reading women’s art in Hong Kong,” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 2 no. 3 (Sept. 2003)): 8-14 and

“Feminism beyond the female body,” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 4 no. 1 (Dec. 2005): 37-41; and Phoebe Man, “In response to the comments of ‘Wo…man—Feminine Art Exhibition’,” PS Visual Arts and Culture Magazine, no. 17 (Summer 2002), 7-9, and “Discussions always start from zero—women art since the 1990s,” PS Visual Arts and Culture Magazine, no. 25 (Winter 2004): 50-65 introduce particular exhibits and conditions of art production by women in Hong Kong.

xivTim Oakes and Louisa Schein, “Translocal China: An Introduction,” in Translocal China: Linkages, Identities and the Reimaginings of Space, eds. Tim Oakes and Louisa Schein (London and New York: Routledge, 2006), 1.

xvGriselda Pollock, “Generations and Geographies,” in Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts: Feminist Readings, ed. Griselda Pollock (London: Routledge, 1996), 7-9.

xviGriselda Pollock, Vision and Difference, xix.

xviiGriselda Pollock, “Preface,” in Generations and Geographies, xix.

xviiiOscar Ho, “Installation: New Possibilities, New Crises,” in Private Content: Public View, complied by Eric Otto Wear and Lisa Cheung (Hong Kong: Hong Kong Fringe Festival), 18.

xixPierre Bourdieu, in The Field of Cultural Production (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), 29-73, theorizes the valorization and comparative worth of creative works through the “space of artistic position-takings” and inverse and competitive relations among them.

xxSee for example the Hong Kong government official website for HKSAR 10th Anniversary events: <http://www.gov.hk/en/theme/10/index.htm>, accessed 1 June 2007. On local Hong Kong identity see for example Anthony Fung, “What Makes the Local? The Rejuvenation of Hong Kong Identity,” Cultural Studies 15, no. 3-4 (July 2001): 591-601.

xxiHou Hanru, Interview by Universes in Universe, 5 July 1997, <http://www.universes-in-universe.de/car/africus/e_hanru.htm>, accessed 15 June 2007.

xxii Hou Hanru, Interview conducted by Ou Ning, 15 May 2006, <http://www.alternativearchive.com/ouning/article.asp?id=157>, accessed 15 June 2007.

xxiii The traditional Chinese nei and wai binary, symbolizing female and male though inner/inside and outer/outside spatial relations, fundamentally coded realities of women’s place within the domestic sphere of social reproduction while outer realms were the world of men.

xxiv Peter G. Mandaville, Territory and Translocality: Discrepant Idioms of Political Identity,” Millennium 28, no. 3 (1999): 655.

xxv Ivy Ma, Interview by the author, Too Art Gallery, Hong Kong Arts Centre, 6 Dec. 2006.

xxvi Hong Kong’s demographics demonstrate relatively high numbers of single professional women. As in many developed economies, more women than men now attend university in Hong Kong and the city’s three degree-granting art schools (two of which were established in the past decade) enroll notably more female students.

The widespread entry of women into the workforce in has been accompanied by some significant demographic shifts. The salient trends are a rapid decline in the total fertility rate (0.9 births in 2005, and 0.7, based on the 2006 population by-census), which is among the lowest in the world; later marriage, increased divorce and increased numbers of never-married women. See Yip, Paul S.F., Joseph Lee and C.K. Law, Hong Kong’s Challenges: Impact of Population Changes (Hong Kong: Civic Exchange, 2005). Over the generation 1981-2001, the proportion of never-married women aged 35-44 increased 345.7 percent, and, in the 45-54 age group, 191.7 percent; in the same period, the numbers for men were 28.1 and 15.7 respectively (HKSAR 2002). The pattern is strongest among women “managers and administrators.” Social recognition of large number of single professional women in Hong Kong also supports non-traditional lifepaths.

xxvii Leung Po-shan Anthony. “In Anticipation of Men’s Art: Re-reading Women’s Art in Hong Kong.” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 2, no. 3 (Sept. 2003), 10.

xxviii Leung Po-shan, “Feminism Beyond the Female Body.” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 4, no. 1 (Dec. 2005), 37, 38.

xxix Matthew Turner, “Fugitive pieces.” in [Re-]Fabrication: Choi-Yan-chi’s 30 Years, Paths of Inter-disciplinarity in Art, ed. and curator Linda C.H. Lai, 52-65. (Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2006), 59.

xxx See Leung Po-Shan, “In Anticipation of Men’s Art,” 2003; and Phoebe Man, “Discussions always start from zero,” 2004.

xxxi Roger Garcia, “The Fourth Dimension.” In An Extension into Space: An Installation Work by Choi Yan Chi, exhibition catalog, unpaginated. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Arts Centre, 1985.

xxxii Yin Shuzngxi, “The Periphery and Cultural Concerns: Making and Exhibiting Installation and Experimental Sculpture in the 1990s,” 67.

xxxiii For different treatments of these themes see Clarke, Hong Kong; Jim, “Urban Mediations in Hong Kong Contemporary Art”; and Mathias Woo Xianggang fengge (Hong Kong Style) (Hong Kong: TOM [Cup Magazine], 2005); and Xianggang fengge 2: xiaomie xianggang (Hong Kong Style 2: Destroy Hong Kong) (Hong Kong: Zuni Icosahedron, 2006).

xxxiv Hilary Robinson, Reading Art, Reading Irigary: The Politics of Art by Women, London: I.B. Taurus, 2006.

xxxv Griselda Pollock, “From Leeds.” In If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, eds. Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock, unpaginated. Hong Kong: 1a space, 2005.

xxxvi Ivy Ma, “From the curator.” In If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, eds. Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock, unpaginated. Hong Kong: 1a space, 2005.

xxxvii Ivy Ma, “From the curator,” 2005.

xxxviii Gillese Deleuze, Deleuze, Gilles (Daniel W. Smith, trans.) Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

xxxix Interview with Carol Lee, conducted by the author. Chai Wan, Hong Kong, 1 Aug. 2007.

xl Tang, Ying Chi. There is a Gleam of Light in the Mountain Far Away: Tang Ying Chi. (Hong Kong: Mackie Study, 2004), 6.

xli Au Hoi-lam, “Au Hoi-lam.” In If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, eds. Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock, unpaginated. Hong Kong: 1a space, 2005.

xlii Au Hoi-lam, “Au Hoi-lam,” 2005.

xliii Ivy Ma, “From the curator,” 2005.

xliv Ivy Ma, “From the curator,” 2005.

xlv Pauline Lam, Interview by the author, Cattle Depot Artist Village, Hong Kong, 1 Aug. 2006. See also Lam, Yuk Lin. Cultivating Civilization Research Report. Hong Kong: cut_N_try production, 2005.

xlvi See <http://www.waikitlam.com/2005/2005_phone/2005_phone_videos.htm>, accessed 15 June 2007.

xlvii Lam Wai-kit, “Lam Wai-kit” In If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, eds. Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock, unpaginated. Hong Kong: 1a space, 2005.

xlviii Amy Cheung, “Indefinitive Portraiture,” <http://www.amycheung.hk/works/indefinitive_portraiture/1.html>, accessed 1 August 2007.

xlix John Millichap, “It’s a mall world: don't expect political grandstanding from this show of Hong Kong works in Shanghai,” South China Morning Post[Hong Kong], 14 July 2007, p. 6.

l John Millichap, “It’s a mall world,” 2007.

li Hou, Hanrou. “Everyday miracles: four women artists; The Chinese Pavilion at the 52nd Venice Biennale,” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 6, no. 2 (June 2007): 8, 9.

lii Hou, Hanrou. “Everyday miracles: four women artists; The Chinese Pavilion at the 52nd Venice Biennale,” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 6, no. 2 (June 2007): 9.

liii See “HistoriCITY – Art Historical Writing in and on Hong Kong,” <http://www.aaa.org.hk/newsletter.html#news419>, accessed 1 August 2007.

liii Ivy Ma, “From the curator” in If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, complied by Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock (Hong Kong: 1a space), unpaginated.

liii See Tsang Tak-ping, ed. and curator, Ma’am’s Box – A Metaphor of the Feeling of Love (Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2000); May Fung, May Fung—Everything Starts from “HERE” (Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2002); and Leung Po-shan Anthony, ed. and curator Man Made – A Project about Masculinity and Art (Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2004).

liii Phoebe Man, “In response to the comments of ‘Wo…man—Feminine Art Exhibition’,” PS Visual Arts and Culture Magazine, no. 17 (Summer 2002), 9.

liii The idea of the idea of ‘woman art’ or ‘women’s art’ (nüxing yishu) gained momentum in Mainland China art circles in the mid-1990s as a consequence of greater activity by women artists, return of ideas about femininity in China under reform, and in response to challenges from Western feminist art. The ‘woman art’ position recognizes feminine rather than feminist characteristics of art produced by women and thus is not a project aimed at problems of gendered essentialisms. In the words of one curator, “It mainly describes the changing images of gender characteristics of woman in the changing dualistic society, and also women’s participation in the cut-throat competition and their self adjustment.” See Zhu Qi, “Women and Feminine Art in the Dualistic Society,” in Women in a Society of Dual Sexuality: The Exhibition of Contemporary Chinese Female Artists, ed. Zhu Qi (Bangkok and Beijing: Tang Contemporary Art, 2006), 8; and Liao Wen, “‘Women’s Art’ as Part of Contemporary Chinese Art since 1990,” in Reinterpretation: A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art: 1990-2002, ed.

Wu Hung with Wang Huangsheng and Feng Boyi (Guangzhou: Guangzhou Museum of Art, 2002), 60-66. From Griselda Pollock’s non essentialist feminist art theory, women’s art cannot be “a unitary ideological category…. To treat work by women merely as exemplars of womanness is to reproduce a tautology which teaches us nothing about what being, doing like, thinking as a woman might be.” See Pollock, Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and the Histories of Art (Loundon: Routledge, 1988), 30.

liii Binghui Huangfu, ed., Text and Subtext: Contemporary Art and Asian Women, (Singapore: Earl Lu Gallery and LASALLE-SIA College of the Arts, 2000); and Text and Subtext: International Contemporary Asian Women Artists Exhibition, (Singapore: Earl Lu Gallery and LASALLE-SIA College of the Arts, 2000).

liii Leung Mee-ping, “Memorize the future,” in Text and Subtext, 54.

liii Phoebe Man in Joan Kee, “What is feminist about contemporary Asian women’s art?,” in Global Feminisms: New Directions in Contemporary Art, eds. Maura Reilly and Linda Nochlin, (London and New York: Merrell Publishers, 2007), 110.

liii Ania Loomba, Colonialism/Postcolonialism (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 47.

liii Chang Tsong-zung, “The Secret Artist: Is Hong Kong Art the True Underground,” in Private Content: Public View, complied by Eric Otto Wear and Lisa Cheung (Hong Kong: Hong Kong Fringe Festival), 84.

liii Considerable debate characterizes the idea of the avant-garde in the PRC. See for example Wu Hung, “Introduction: a decade of Chinese experimental art (1990-2000),” in Reinterpretation: A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art: 1990-2002, ed. Wu Hung with Wang Huangsheng and Feng Boyi (Guangzhou: Guangzhou Museum of Art, 2002), 10-19.

liii Shu-mei Shih, Visuality and Identity: Sinophone Articulations across the Pacific, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007).

liii The art historical treatment of contemporary art is David Clarke Hong Kong Art: Culture and Decolonization (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2001). A focused assessment on selected art media from theoretical perspectives of local identity and urban space in the postcolonial city is Alice Ming Wai Jim, “Urban Mediations in Hong Kong Contemporary Art: Notes on A Very Good City and Local Orientation,” Positions 12, no. 3 (Winter 2004): 733-58.

Jaspar K.W. Lau’s art criticism most dependably advances concerns with local/national/global perspectives on Hong Kong art in relation the PRC and international art criticism; see for example “Identity (f)or difference,” in Local Accent – 12 Artists from Hong Kong, (Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space), 6-35; and “No ‘local’ is an Island,” Yishu 6, no. 5 (June 2006): 85-92.

liii The singular treatment of distinctive women artists in Hong Kong is Eva Kitwah Man Zizhu de zuqun: shi wei Xianggang xinyidai nüxing shijue yishu gongzuozhe (The Tribe of Autonomy: 10 Women Visual Artists in Hong Kong), (Hong Kong: Chunghwa Books, 2000). Writing by Leung Po Shan Anthony, for example, “In anticipation of men’s art: re-reading women’s art in Hong Kong,” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 2 no. 3 (Sept. 2003)): 8-14 and “Feminism beyond the female body,” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 4 no. 1 (Dec. 2005): 37-41; and

Phoebe Man, “In response to the comments of ‘Wo…man—Feminine Art Exhibition’,” PS Visual Arts and Culture Magazine, no. 17 (Summer 2002), 7-9, and “Discussions always start from zero—women art since the 1990s,” PS Visual Arts and Culture Magazine, no. 25 (Winter 2004): 50-65 introduce particular exhibits and conditions of art production by women in Hong Kong.

liii Tim Oakes and Louisa Schein, “Translocal China: An Introduction,” in Translocal China: Linkages, Identities and the Reimaginings of Space, eds. Tim Oakes and Louisa Schein (London and New York: Routledge, 2006), 1.

liii Griselda Pollock, “Generations and Geographies,” in Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts: Feminist Readings, ed. Griselda Pollock (London: Routledge, 1996), 7-9.

liii Griselda Pollock, Vision and Difference, xix.

liii Griselda Pollock, “Preface,” in Generations and Geographies, xix.

liii Oscar Ho, “Installation: New Possibilities, New Crises,” in Private Content: Public View, complied by Eric Otto Wear and Lisa Cheung (Hong Kong: Hong Kong Fringe Festival), 18.

liii Pierre Bourdieu, in The Field of Cultural Production (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), 29-73, theorizes the valorization and comparative worth of creative works through the “space of artistic position-takings” and inverse and competitive relations among them.

liii See for example the Hong Kong government official website for HKSAR 10th Anniversary events: <http://www.gov.hk/en/theme/10/index.htm>, accessed 1 June 2007. On local Hong Kong identity see for example Anthony Fung, “What Makes the Local? The Rejuvenation of Hong Kong Identity,”

Cultural Studies 15, no. 3-4 (July 2001): 591-601.

liii Hou Hanru, Interview by Universes in Universe, 5 July 1997, <http://www.universes-in-universe.de/car/africus/e_hanru.htm>, accessed 15 June 2007.

liii Hou Hanru, Interview conducted by Ou Ning, 15 May 2006, <http://www.alternativearchive.com/ouning/article.asp?id=157>, accessed 15 June 2007.

liii The traditional Chinese nei and wai binary, symbolizing female and male though inner/inside and outer/outside spatial relations, fundamentally coded realities of women’s place within the domestic sphere of social reproduction while outer realms were the world of men.

liii Peter G. Mandaville, Territory and Translocality: Discrepant Idioms of Political Identity,” Millennium 28, no. 3 (1999): 655.

liii Ivy Ma, Interview by the author, Too Art Gallery, Hong Kong Arts Centre, 6 Dec. 2006.

liii Hong Kong’s demographics demonstrate relatively high numbers of single professional women. As in many developed economies, more women than men now attend university in Hong Kong and the city’s three degree-granting art schools (two of which were established in the past decade) enroll notably more female students. The widespread entry of women into the workforce in has been accompanied by some significant demographic shifts. The salient trends are a rapid decline in the total fertility rate (0.9 births in 2005, and 0.7, based on the 2006 population by-census), which is among the lowest in the world; later marriage, increased divorce and increased numbers of never-married women. See Yip, Paul S.F., Joseph Lee and C.K. Law, Hong Kong’s Challenges: Impact of Population Changes (Hong Kong: Civic Exchange, 2005).

Over the generation 1981-2001, the proportion of never-married women aged 35-44 increased 345.7 percent, and, in the 45-54 age group, 191.7 percent; in the same period, the numbers for men were 28.1 and 15.7 respectively (HKSAR 2002). The pattern is strongest among women “managers and administrators.” Social recognition of large number of single professional women in Hong Kong also supports non-traditional lifepaths.

liii Leung Po-shan Anthony. “In Anticipation of Men’s Art: Re-reading Women’s Art in Hong Kong.” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 2, no. 3 (Sept. 2003), 10.

liii Leung Po-shan, “Feminism Beyond the Female Body.” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 4, no. 1 (Dec. 2005), 37, 38.

liii Matthew Turner, “Fugitive pieces.” in [Re-]Fabrication: Choi-Yan-chi’s 30 Years, Paths of Inter-disciplinarity in Art, ed. and curator Linda C.H. Lai, 52-65. (Hong Kong: Para/Site Art Space, 2006), 59.

liii See Leung Po-Shan, “In Anticipation of Men’s Art,” 2003; and Phoebe Man, “Discussions always start from zero,” 2004.

liii Roger Garcia, “The Fourth Dimension.” In An Extension into Space: An Installation Work by Choi Yan Chi, exhibition catalog, unpaginated. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Arts Centre, 1985.

liii Yin Shuzngxi, “The Periphery and Cultural Concerns: Making and Exhibiting Installation and Experimental Sculpture in the 1990s,” 67.

liii For different treatments of these themes see Clarke, Hong Kong; Jim, “Urban Mediations in Hong Kong Contemporary Art”; and Mathias Woo Xianggang fengge (Hong Kong Style) (Hong Kong: TOM [Cup Magazine], 2005); and Xianggang fengge 2: xiaomie xianggang (Hong Kong Style 2: Destroy Hong Kong) (Hong Kong: Zuni Icosahedron, 2006).

liii Hilary Robinson, Reading Art, Reading Irigary: The Politics of Art by Women, London: I.B. Taurus, 2006.

liii Griselda Pollock, “From Leeds.” In If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, eds. Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock, unpaginated. Hong Kong: 1a space, 2005.

liii Ivy Ma, “From the curator.” In If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, eds. Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock, unpaginated. Hong Kong: 1a space, 2005. 2005

liii Ivy Ma, “From the curator,” 2005.

liii Gillese Deleuze, Deleuze, Gilles (Daniel W. Smith, trans.) Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

liii Interview with Carol Lee, conducted by the author. Chai Wan, Hong Kong, 1 Aug. 2007.

liii Tang, Ying Chi. There is a Gleam of Light in the Mountain Far Away: Tang Ying Chi. (Hong Kong: Mackie Study, 2004), 6.

liii Au Hoi-lam, “Au Hoi-lam.” In If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, eds. Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock, unpaginated. Hong Kong: 1a space, 2005.

liii Au Hoi-lam, “Au Hoi-lam,” 2005.

liii Ivy Ma, “From the curator,” 2005.

liii Pauline Lam, Interview by the author, Cattle Depot Artist Village, Hong Kong, 1 Aug. 2006. See also Lam, Yuk Lin. Cultivating Civilization Research Report. Hong Kong: cut_N_try production, 2005.

liii See <http://www.waikitlam.com/2005/2005_phone/2005_phone_videos.htm>, accessed 15 June 2007.

liii Lam Wai-kit, “Lam Wai-kit” In If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller and Schema: A Traveller’s Approach, eds. Ivy Ma, Eva Kitwah Man and Griselda Pollock, unpaginated. Hong Kong: 1a space, 2005.

liii Amy Cheung, “Indefinitive Portraiture,” <http://www.amycheung.hk/works/indefinitive_portraiture/1.html>, accessed 1 August 2007.

liii John Millichap, “It’s a mall world: don't expect political grandstanding from this show of Hong Kong works in Shanghai,” South China Morning Post[Hong Kong], 14 July 2007, p. 6.

liii John Millichap, “It’s a mall world,” 2007.

liii Hou, Hanrou. “Everyday miracles: four women artists; The Chinese Pavilion at the 52nd Venice Biennale,” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 6, no. 2 (June 2007): 8, 9.

liii Hou, Hanrou. “Everyday miracles: four women artists; The Chinese Pavilion at the 52nd Venice Biennale,” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 6, no. 2 (June 2007): 9.

liii See “HistoriCITY – Art Historical Writing in and on Hong Kong,” <http://www.aaa.org.hk/newsletter.html#news419>, accessed 1 August 2007.